MARTIAL° (M. Valerius Martialis; c. 40–104 C.E.), Roman epigrammatist. Martial ridiculed the Jewish rite of circumcision (Epigrammaton, 7:55) and speaks mockingly of women who fast on the Sabbath (ibid., 4:4). In common with other classical writers (e.g., Augustus, Strabo, Pompeius Trogus, Persius, and Petronius), Martial confuses the Sabbath with a fast day, probably the Day of Atonement. He referred to licentious Jews who shared vices with their fellow Romans (ibid., 7:30). Martial scolded a circumcised rival poet from Solymae (Jerusalem) for plagiarizing his verses, while criticizing them (ibid., 11:94). In common with other Roman satirists (e.g., juvenal ), he depicts unfavorably Jewish life in Rome, expressing indignation at the constant growth of that community which he considered strange. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reinach, Textes, 287–9; M. Radin, The Jews among the Greeks and Romans (1915), 302, 325–6, 329–30. (Solomon Rappaport)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • MARTIAL — MARCUS VALERIUS (40? ? 104) C’est dans une petite ville de Tarraconaise, Bilbilis (aujourd’hui Bambola) près de Catalayud, que Marcus Valerius Martialis voit le jour. Ses parents devaient être aisés, puisqu’il put recevoir une bonne éducation.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Martial — Mar tial, a. [F., fr. L. martialis of or belonging to Mars, the god of war. Cf. {March} the month.] [1913 Webster] 1. Of, pertaining to, or suited for, war; military; as, martial music; a martial appearance. Martial equipage. Milton. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • marţial — MARŢIÁL, Ă, marţiali, e, adj. 1. (livr.), Solemn şi grav; impunător. 2. Ostăşesc, militar; de război. ♢ Curte marţială = tribunal militar instituit în timp de război, de mobilizare sau în timpul unei stări excepţionale. Lege marţială = lege care… …   Dicționar Român

  • martial — martial, warlike, military carry as their basic meaning belonging to, suitable to, or characteristic of war. Martial distinctively implies reference to war in general and to its essential and fundamental characteristics; it often specifically… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • martial — [mär′shəl] adj. [ME martialle < L martialis, of Mars] 1. of or suitable for war [martial songs] 2. showing a readiness or eagerness to fight; warlike 3. of the army, the navy, or military life; military martialism n. martialist n. martially… …   English World dictionary

  • martial — martial, ale (mar si al, a l ) adj. 1°   Digne de Mars, guerrier. Un air martial. Une tenue martiale.    Cour martiale, sorte de tribunal militaire.    Loi martiale, loi qui autorise l emploi de la force armée dans certains cas. La loi martiale a …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Martial — Martial,   eigentlich Marcus Valerius Martialis, römischer Dichter, * Bílbilis (bei Calatayud, Spanien) um 40, ✝ bald nach 100; lebte etwa 64 98 in Rom als Literat. Erhalten sind von ihm zwölf Bücher »Epigrammata«, meist in Distichen, dazu eine… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • martial — (adj.) late 14c., warlike, from L. martialis of Mars or war, from Mars (gen. Martis), Roman god of war; see MARS (Cf. Mars). Related: Martially. Martial law, military rule over civilians, first recorded 1530s …   Etymology dictionary

  • martial — Martial, m. acut. C est qui appartient à Mars presidant au fait des armes, ou digne de Mars, ou qui resemble à Mars, comme, Courage Martial, c. Magnanime et plein de valeur. C est aussi le nom propre d un homme, Martialis …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • martial — Martial, [marti]ale. adj. Guerrier. Courage Martial. humeur Martiale. fureur Martiale …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

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